Thursday, May 21, 2020
Current social attitudes toward the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex (GLBTI) community can be seen as a significant contributor to the equity, or lack thereof, of the sexual education syllabus in schools. The range of topics covered in regard to homosexuality varies greatly between and within Australia and the United States of America (Bell, 2008, 2). This variance in service provisions can be attributed to differing social attitudes, specifically those held by parents, teachers, students and policy-makers. These social attitudes directly impact the equity of a schools sexual education program. Further, while social attitudes shape education provision they are also shaped by education. With statistics showing that theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ËTalking Sexual Health,Ã¢â¬â¢ further, includes units about drugs, sex, and health, knowledge and action, addressing diversity, and exploring power dimensions in sexual relationships (Bell, 2003, 2). The success of t he program is clear, not only in the increasing acceptance of GLBTI people in Australia, but for the student population as a whole. Compared to the United States, Australian Teenagers have significantly higher levels of sexual health according to many measures. The birth rate for teenÃ¢â¬â¢s ages 15-19 in Australia is 40.5 per 1000, significantly less than the rate for US teens (112.4 per 1000). Australian teens ages 15-19 have an abortion rate of 3.9 per 1000, compared to 30.2 per 1000 for US teens. Ninety percent of Australian males and ninety-five percent of Australian females report having used contraception the first time they had intercourse (Bell, 2003, 2-3). Thus, while much of the sexual health of Australian teens can, in part, be attributed to the openness of parentÃ¢â¬â¢s and society, it is clear that the Australian Ã¢â¬ËTalking Sexual HealthÃ¢â¬â¢ syllabus is beneficial not only to GLBTI students, but to Australian youth in general. Changing social attitudes in Australia has been claimed as a significant factor in the increased push within school to promote an inclusive sexual education curriculum (Bell, 2008, 2). Despite this emphasis on diversity heterosexual youths remain far more likely to see their sexuality asShow MoreRelatedEssay on AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Schools Need Character Education5183 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagesthe United States. A very real example of this bias can be seen in the teaching of Thanksgiving. A holiday celebrated universally through all religions gives educators in public schools the opportunity to discuss and rejoice in the day with classroom activities and parties. Neglected from the Thanksgiving lesson, however, is the plight of the Native American who lost land and life when the Puritan settlers landed. Although moral education differs from multicultural education, they have pointsRead MoreA Brief Note On The And Lesbian And Gay Pride Week At An Elementary Classroom Essay1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseventually continue a vicious violent cycle towards members of such community and expand that vision to others within his community. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Surviving the Pain and Widening the Circle: Celebrating Lesbian and Gay Pride Week in an Elementary Classroom,Ã¢â¬ a teacher (Mr. Guiney) explains the need for schoolboards to include a curriculum on sexual diversity to prevent further ignoran ce and violence upon homosexuals whether they are students or teachers. As it was mentioned in the article, it is importantRead MoreLGBT Hate Crimes and Suicidality Among a Population-Bases Sample of Sexual-Minority Adolescents in Boston1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin Massachusetts to allowing eligible high schools to participate in a survey that would later be used to cross-reference local hate crime rates. Methodology and Study Measures The sample population were classroom lists stratified by grade level from participating high schools. Classrooms, consisting of 9th-through-12th graders from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, were randomly sampled to complete the Boston Youth Survey. The correlation research study excluded schools that servedRead MoreHate Crimes Against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Individuals1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals people make up more than ten percent of the population; that means if you are sitting in a classroom of thirty, then more than three of those people are LGBT individuals. However, this overwhelmingly large minority group continues to be one of the least protected by the government as well as most heavily targeted by discrimination and hate crimes. Regardless of the powerful shift in public opinion concerning LGBT individuals during theRead MoreHomophobia Is The Leading Cause Of Suicide And Depression Among Teenagers And Young Adults1846 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesleading cause of suicide and depression among teenagers and young adults. I believe that this is a crucial situation and needs to be addressed both at home and in school. School officials must be permitted and comfortable with addressing issues of homosexuality and homophobia that students may have. This is crucial in not only enabling a LGBT teenager to get an education that is in a non-hostile environment, but also in enabling the student to become a strong confident adult. Homophobia Description Read MoreHomosexual Stigma Essay examples2132 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesis present in schools; however, none of them have proven to be the reason why. A lot of times there is a divide between groupings of students some, Ã¢â¬Å"adolescents can hold the belief that it is wrong to be gay, while at the same time accepting that exclusion and teasing based on sexual orientation is wrong because it is hurtful and unfairÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Stacey S. Horn, Ph.D., and Katherine E. Romeo, M.Ed., 2). As teachers is our job to ensure that we try to change these views and bring students who believe that isRead MoreMasculinity as Homophobia by Michael S. Kimmel1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgrouped into very distinct and limiting meanings of masculinity. He states that men, whether consciously or subconsciously, fear being ostracized as being too feminine by other males, and it is this fear which continues a cycle of homophobia and exclusion within masculinity. Men are all putting on a mask, in an attempt to hi de their true selves from other males. Kimmel suggest that society begins to use politics of inclusion or that the definition of manhood be widened to help end the gender struggleRead MoreDifferences Between Special Education And Inclusive Education3310 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesits situation in a particular context that comparatively grades it against other values. Looking back through history, certain phenomena that were once classified as Ã¢â¬ËdisabilitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ or abnormalities are now considered to be Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢. For example, homosexuality was regarded as a mental disorder in the United States until 1973 (Cirakoglu, 2006; Drescher, 2010). Given such fluctuations of definition and acceptability that history has witnessed, it is plausible to propose that the concept of normative abilityRead More War Creates Social Division, Not Cohesion Essay5403 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesevidence that social cohesion was not in effect like it had been assumed by the general population, but is downright disturbing and depressing factual knowledge of an oppressive regime. Arval Morris believes the diabolical episode of military ordered exclusion and internment of over 112,000 Japanese Americans, 79,000 which were citizens, from five West Coast states without declaring martial law hangs as a repugnant reminder of the largest forced forfeiture of civil liberties in the United States sinceRead MoreThe Oppression Of The Disabled And The Social Injustices Essay2223 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesunseen and require diagnosis. The definition of mental health disorders has changed over time. The Diagnostic Statistic Manual (DSM) has been updated four times since it was first published in 1952. One example of such change is that until 1980 homosexuality was considered a mental disorder (Kaminer, 2016). Oppression and social justice Disabled people are often oppressed and experience social injustices. Disabled people are less likely to be employed and earn less than able-bodied people (Tomko
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Mark TwainÃ¢â¬Ës The adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a wonderful illustration of the picaresque nineteen century American novel. The author portrays the world and spirit of the South through the eyes and the journey of a young boy, Huck, and his friends Jim, and Tom. From the beginning, three themes friendship, conflict between society and natural life, and escape, emerge and are developed throughout the novel. Friendship underlines the entire book as the hero is essentially an orphan, Huckleberry Finn. Huck experiences the world around him with his friend Tom, a boy of the same age, and Jim, a runaway slave who lives with him though their entire voyage to become not only a wonderful companion, but also a fatherly figure. In the first chapter, Tom is introduced both as HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s friend and adventure seeker while Jim is then only one of the Ã¢â¬Å"niggersÃ¢â¬ of the household, called for prayers. TomÃ¢â¬Ës camaraderie is precious to Huck as he seems to be his only real fr iend in the gang, while the others wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind to get rid of him as he has no family and they would not be able to kill them if he did not follow the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s oath in chapter 2. In chapter 8 Huck thinks about Tom and believes his friend would be proud of him faking his death to get away from Pap. Later in the novel, Tom is happy to help out Huck and Jim when they are at his auntÃ¢â¬â¢s house starting in chapter thirty-three until the end of the novel. Chapter eight brings Jim into HuckleberryÃ¢â¬â¢s life as Huck is happy to be freeShow MoreRelatedThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain830 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is Ã¢â¬Å"A Great American NovelÃ¢â¬ , because of its complexity and richness. Twain writes dialogue that brings his characters to life. He creates characters with unique voice and helps the reader connect to the book. Anyone who reads it is forced to develop feelings for each character. Even though there is a great amount of controversy over the use of some choices, such as the Ã¢â¬Å"n wordÃ¢â¬ , it makes the book more realistic. In the beginning of the novel Huck,Read MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1103 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDmitri Van Duine Jr English Mr. Nelson November 27th The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Written by Mark Twain filled his stories with many examples of satire as to convey a message while also writing an interesting story. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn revolves around the adventures of a young boy called Huckleberry Finn, who is about thirteen years old. Tom Sawyer is HuckÃ¢â¬â¢s best friend and around the same age as Huck. He is onlyRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain Essay1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesZambrano Mrs. Patmor AP Lit-Period 5 28 September 2016 Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 1835 Mark Twain embodies realism in almost every aspect of his writing not excluding The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which in he portrays such a lifelike setting that it almost gives you this sense of reality through the point of view of a young man that has an urge for freedom yet struggles to conform to society s norms due to his adolescence. Twain s ability to unmask the true identities of the charactersRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWolski Mrs. Goska English 2H Period 3 22 October 2014 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Mob mentality is the way an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions become influenced by the often unprincipled actions of a crowd. Mark Twain penned The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Twain grew up in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s southern states during the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, a time in which moral confusion erupted within the minds of humans. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn s protagonist is a young boy named Huck who freely travels alongRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmention the years spent growing and maturing physically. Teenagers are stuck in an inbetween state where they must learn who they want to become and what they want to be when they grow older. The same is true for Huckleberry Finn, from the book Ã¢â¬Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry FinnÃ¢â¬ by Mark Twain. This is a book that was written in a time of great confusion over moral codes and standards. It was a world split in half by two different worlds of people; those who opposed, a nd those who promoted slavery.Read MoreMark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn1575 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Mark Twain and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Controversy Mark Twain, born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, is a highly recognizable figure in American literature. Born in Florida, Missouri Mark Twain and his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri where Twain discovered and fell in love with the mighty Mississippi River. The river and his life in Hannibal became his inspiration and guiding light in most of his writing. Although Twain loved the river and did a great deal of traveling, he eventuallyRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain2083 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSatire in Huckleberry Finn In the novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry FinnÃ¢â¬ by Mark Twain, we are told a story about a young boy and his slave companionÃ¢â¬â¢s journey down the Mississippi River and all of their encounters with other characters. Twain constructed a beautiful narrative on how young Huck Finn, the protagonist in the story, learns about the world and from other adult characters, how he is shaped into his own person. At the time this book was made however, this novel provided serious socialRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain810 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBefore Mark Twain started to write two of his most famous novels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark was known to use his characters to display his own thoughts and opinions. Ã¢â¬Å"This device allowed him to say just about anything he wanted, provided he could convincingly claim he was simply reporting what others had said.Ã¢â¬ (Twain, 1283). Mark Twain used this process to be a foundation of his lectures, by manipulating his popularly with his readers. During the storyRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn written by Mark Twain in the 19th century is about a young boy named Huck Finn and Jim, a runaway slave who go on an adventure. The two travel on a raft along the Mississippi river creating a bond and making memories. Mark Twain presents Huckleberry Finn as a dynamic character who at first views Jim as property and eventually considers Jim as a friend, showing a change in maturity. In the beginning of the book, Huck Finn clearly sees Jim as nothing more thanRead MoreThe Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn By Mark Twain1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesyear The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is placed in the top ten banned books in America. People find the novel to be oppressing and racially insensitive due to its frequent use of the n-word and the portrayal of blacks as a Sambo caricature. However, this goes against Mark TwainÃ¢â¬â¢s intent of bringing awareness to the racism in America. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain is classified under the genre of satire and is narrated by a fictional character named Huckleberry Finn. The novel
Taking a survey of all types of sports equipment around my house I see a variety of different things that my family and I tend to buy depending on the type of sport or activity anyone is into at the time. At first thinking of the this assignment and reading the instructions I did not think that I had any sports equipment in my household but once I started looking around I noticed that there are a lot of things that can be considered sports equipment like exercise equipment and clothing that I very frequently spend money on. Lately I had been getting into working out a lot because I want to lose weight for the summer which is right around the corner, and I have had these spurts a lot and have not gone through with the whole thing but each time I always buy something new that will help me to lose weight. We will write a custom essay sample on Sports Consumer Behavior or any similar topic only for you Order Now I also took into account all the things that my boyfriend buys because most of the time we both buy stuff for his football. Currently he is playing semi-professional football locally for the city we live in and he is constantly buying new things from clothing to balls and pads for his games. The National Sporting Goods Association (NSGA) has a listing of all the different sports categories and the difference each made every year in sales. The sports category I chose to look at is the hunting and firearms category because it seems to show the most significant changes out if all of the other categories. The significant difference I see in the hunting and firearms category is in increase in sales of about $354 million dollars from 2008 to 2009. Looking at the history of hunting and firearms sales I can see that throughout the years it has continually been a significant increase each year. The only reason I can suggest that there is so much of an interest and increase in this category would be that more and more people are becoming interested in hunting and activities that include the use of firearms, and not to mention the hunters that have been hunting for years always upgrading to the newest and best equipment and firearms. A different category that is extremely high in value and the highest one of the forecast is exercise. I can identify with this category because I am one of the reasons that industry is so high, I know that there are a lot of people out there like myself that want to lose weight and will try any new thing that comes out for weight loss to see if it works. Looking at the amount that I spend on exercise equipment from the videoÃ¢â¬â¢s and DVDÃ¢â¬â¢s to the weights and he bands and the sneakers and clothes I can see why the exercise industry is so big. People want the next best thing that is going to help them lose weight. A category that is the complete opposite from exercise is the Racquetball category where in the past few years it has had both increases and decreases in sales, but in 2009 was significantly lower than all of the other categories. I think that racquetball is so low in sales because not many people play this sport or for that matter are not too sure of what it is (l ike me). These are not one of the mostly popular sports that are played around the United States and for that reason I think is why this category is one of the lowest on this forecast. I think that the more popular a sport is and the more people know about it and have interest in it the more the public is willing to spend on the items for the sport or activity. One of the categories that definitely surprises me in terms of value is football, I know that this is a sport played all around the United States and is very popular but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize how low the amount of sales for football equipment. The only reason I can think of that would make football so low in terms of value would be the fact that the manufacturers make football products so durable and sustainable that they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be replaced as frequently as other sports and products. Knowing that most of these products are made to stand the toughness of this contact sport is a reason I guess I am not that surprised that the sales are low, these companies are making the best product to with stand everything and takes a lot to break them therefore customers do not have to replace them. Self-Survey of sports equipment purchased on a yearly basis: Weights -$60 Resistance bands- $30 P 90 X DVD Ã¢â¬â $125 Other workout videos and DVDÃ¢â¬â¢s- $100-$150 Workout sneakers Ã¢â¬â $200-$300 Workout clothes Ã¢â¬â $300 Miscellaneous workout equipment- $100 Football cleats- $200 Pads- $100-$200 Jerseys- $150 Footballs Ã¢â¬â $70 Football tights Ã¢â¬â $45 Football practice clothing -$200 How to cite Sports Consumer Behavior, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
"The Watergate Complex is a series of modern buildings with balconies that looks like filed down Shark's Teeth" (Gold, 1). Located on the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. it contains many hotel rooms and offices. What happened in the complex on June 17, 1972 early in the morning became a very historical event for our nation that no one will ever forget. The "Watergate Scandal" and constitutional crisis that began on June 17, 1972 with the arrest of five burglars who broke into the Democratic National Committee (DMC) headquarters at the Watergate office building in Washington D.C. It ended with the registration of President Richard M. Nixon on August 9, 1974. (Watergate) At approximately 2:30 in the morning of June 17, 1972 five men were arrested at the Watergate Complex. The police seized a walkie talkie, 40 rolls of unexposed film, two 35 millimeter cameras, lock picks, pensized teargas guns, and bugging devices. (Gold, 75) These five men and two co-plotters were indicated in September 1972 on charges of burglary, conspiracy and wire tapping. Four months later they were convicted and sentenced to prison terms by District Court Judge John J. Sercia was convinced that relevant details had not been unveiled during the trial and offered leniency in exchanged for further information. As it became increasingly evident that the Watergate burglars were tied closely to the Central Intelligence Agency and the Committee to re-elect the president. (Watergate) Four of these men, that were arrested on the morning of June 17, 1972, came from Miami, Florida. They were Bernard L. Barker, Frank A. Sturgis, Virgillio R. Gonzalez, and Eugenio R. Martinez. The other man was from Rockville, Maryland named James W. McCord, Jr. The two co-plotters were G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt. (Watergate) The senate established and investigative committee headed by Senate Sam Ervin, Jr., to look into the growing scandal. As they were investigating, they related that the famous break-in was far more involved than what everyone had expected. (Watergate) The White Houses involvement of that morning first became evident when James McCord wrote a letter to Judge Sirca. In this letter McCord explained that he wanted to disclose the details of Watergate. He made it apparent that he would not speak to a Justice department official of an FBI agent. Although his letter did unveil details, it made server chargers. McCord justified that "Political pressure" (Westerfled 36) had generated many defendants to plead guilty and remain silent. He also claimed that there had been whiteness at the trail who had committed perjury in order to protect the people who headed the brake-in. McCord declared that he, his family, and his friend may be in danger if he spoke out. (Westerfled 36-37) The Senate Watergate Committee saw their chance to unravel the mystery of this scandal. The offered James McCord a chance to speak publicly. In his first meeting with representatives of this committee he named two more people that he claimed were involved in the burglary and cover-up. Theses two men were John Dean and Jeb Margruder. Margruder was the second-in-charge of the CRP and Dean was a White House aid. After hearing these substantial accusations the Senate Watergate Committee promptly subpoenaed John Dean and Jeb Margruder. (Westerfled 37-38). After the next session with James McCord he took the whiteness stand and explained how Liddy had promised him an executive pardon if he would plead guilty. This began to question the a White House involvement since only the president could present such a pardon. (Westerfled, 40) Jeb Margruder was the next witness to testify. He admitted his own perjury to the Grand Jury and verified what McCord had said. While on the stand he also revealed another name to add to the list of those involved, John Mitchell. (Gold, 246-247) The next witness scheduled to appear was John Dean. In Dean's testimony he exposed that the Watergate burglary had been only a part of a greater abuse of power. He said that for four years the White House had used the powers of the presidency to attack political enemies. They spied on and harassed anyone who did not agree with Nixon's policies. If a reporter wrote stories criticizing the White House they would be singled out for tax investigations. The White House also kept an "Enemies List" (Westerfled 43) of people that the presidents men wanted revenge on. After being fired, dean kept official documents that supported his statements. (Westerfled 43-44; Gold 309-330) John Dean said, is his opening statements, that he had discussed the cover-up with president Nixon in several meetings. At the first meeting, in September 1972, he told
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 Landmark Legal Case The Supreme Court case Gibbons v. Ogden established important precedents about interstate commerce when it was decided in 1824. The case arose from a dispute concerning early steamboats chugging about in the waters of New York, but principles established in the case resonate to the present day. The decision in Gibbons v. Ogden created an enduring legacy as it established theÃ general principle that interstate commerce as mentioned in the Constitution includedÃ more than just the buying and selling of goods. By considering the operation of steamboats to be interstate commerce, and thus activity coming under the authority of the federal government, the Supreme Court established a precedent which would impact many later cases. The immediate effect of the case was that it struck down a New York law granting a monopoly to a steamboat owner. By eliminating the monopoly, the operation of steamboats became a highly competitive business beginning in the 1820s. In thatÃ atmosphere of competition, great fortunes could be made. And the greatest American fortune of the mid-1800s, the enormous wealth of Cornelius Vanderbilt, could be traced to the decision that eliminated the steamboat monopoly in New York. The landmark court case involved young Cornelius Vanderbilt. And Gibbons v. Ogden alsoÃ provided a platform and cause for Daniel Webster, a lawyer and politician whose oratorical skills would come to influence American politics for decades. However, the two men for whom the case was named, Thomas Gibbons and Aaron Ogden, were fascinating characters in their own right. Their personal histories, which included them being neighbors, business associates, and eventually bitter enemies, provided a raucous background to the lofty legal proceedings. The concerns of steamboat operators in the early decades of the 19th century seem quaint and very distant from modern life. Yet the decision rendered by the Supreme Court in 1824 influences life in America toÃ the present day. The Steamboat Monopoly The great value of steam power became apparent in the late 1700s, and Americans in the 1780s were working, mostly unsuccessfully, to build practical steamboats. Robert Fulton, an American living in England, had been an artist who became involved in designing canals. During a trip to France, Fulton was exposed to advances in steamboats. And, with the financial backing of the wealthy American ambassador to France, Robert Livingston, Fulton began working to build a practical steamboat in 1803. Livingston, who had been one of the nations founding fathers, was very wealthy and possessed extensiveÃ landholdings. But he also possessed another asset with the potential to be enormously valuable: He had secured, through his political connections, the right to have a monopoly on steamboats in the waters of New York State. Anyone who wanted to operate a steamboat had to partner with Livingston, or purchase a license from him. After Fulton and Livingston returned to America, Fulton launched his first practical steamboat, The Clermont, in August 1807, four years after he met up with Livingston. The two men soon had a thriving business. And under New York law, no one could launch steamboats in New York waters to compete with them. Competitors Steam Ahead Aaron Ogden, a lawyerÃ and veteran of the Continental Army, was elected governor of New Jersey in 1812 and sought to challenge the steamboat monopoly by buying and operating a steam-powered ferry. His attempt failed. Robert Livingston had died, but hisÃ heirs, along with Robert Fulton, successfully defended their monopoly in the courts. Ogden, defeated but still believing he could turn a profit, obtained a license from the Livingston family and operated a steam ferry between New York and New Jersey. Ogden had become friends with Thomas Gibbons, a wealthy lawyer and cotton dealerÃ from Georgia who had moved to New Jersey. At some point the two men had a dispute and things turned inexplicably bitter. Gibbons, who had participated in duels back in Georgia, challenged Ogden to a duel in 1816. The two men never met to exchange gunfire. But, being two very angry lawyers, they began a series of antagonistic legal maneuvers against each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s business interests. Seeing great potential, both to make money and harm Ogden, Gibbons decided that he would go into the steamboat business and challenge the monopoly. He also hoped to put his adversary Ogden out of business. OgdenÃ¢â¬â¢s ferry, the Atalanta, was matched by a new steamboat, the Bellona, which Gibbons put into the water in 1818. To pilot the boat, Gibbons had hired aÃ boatman in his mid-twenties named Cornelius Vanderbilt. Growing up in a Dutch community on Staten Island, Vanderbilt had started his career as a teenager running a small boat called a periauger between Staten Island and Manhattan. Vanderbilt quickly became known about the harbor as someone who worked relentlessly. He possessed keen sailing skill, with an impressive knowledge of every current in the notoriously tricky waters of New York Harbor. And Vanderbilt was fearless when sailing in rough conditions. Thomas Gibbons put Vanderbilt to work as the captain of his new ferry in 1818. For Vanderbilt, used to being his own boss, it was an unusual situation. But working for Gibbons meant he could learn a lot about steamboats. And he also must have realized he could learn a lot about business from watching how Gibbons waged his endless battles against Ogden. In 1819 Ogden went to court to shut down the ferry run by Gibbons. When threatened by process servers, Cornelius Vanderbilt continued sailing the ferry back and forth. At points he was even arrested. With his own growing connections in New York politics, he was generally able to get the charges thrown out, though he did rack up a number of fines. During a year of legal skirmishing the case between Gibbons and OgdenÃ moved through the New York State courts. In 1820 the New York courts upheld the steamboat monopoly. Gibbons was ordered to cease operating his ferry. The Federal Case Gibbons, of course, was not about to quit. He chose to appeal his case to the federal courts. He had obtained what was known as a Ã¢â¬Å"coastingÃ¢â¬ license from the federal government. That allowed him to operate his boat along the coasts of the United States, in accordance with a law from the early 1790s. The position of Gibbons in his federal case would be that federal law should supersede state law. And, that the commerce clause under Article 1, Section 8 of the U.S. ConstitutionÃ should be interpreted to mean that carrying passengers on a ferry was interstate commerce. Gibbons sought out an impressive attorney to plead his case: Daniel Webster, the New England politician who was gaining national fame as a great orator. Webster seemed the perfect choice, as he was interested in advancing the cause of business in the growing country. Cornelius Vanderbilt, who had been hired by Gibbons because of his tough reputationÃ as a sailor, volunteered to travel to Washington to meet with Webster and another prominent lawyer and politician, William Wirt. Vanderbilt was largely uneducated, and throughout his life he would often be considered a fairly coarse character. So he seemed an unlikely character to be dealing with Daniel Webster. VanderbiltÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to be involved in the case indicates that he recognized its great importance to his own future. He must have realized that dealing with the legal issues would teach him a lot. After meeting with Webster and Wirt, Vanderbilt remained in Washington while the case first went to the U.S. Supreme Court. To the disappointment of Gibbons and Vanderbilt, the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s highest court refused to hear it on a technicality, as the courts in New York State had not yet entered a final judgment. Returning to New York City, Vanderbilt went back to operating the ferry, in violation of the monopoly, while stillÃ trying to avoid the authorities and at times skirmishing with them in local courts. Eventually the case was put on the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s docket, and arguments were scheduled. At the Supreme Court In early Februrary 1824 the case of Gibbons v. Ogden was argued in the Supreme Court chambers, which were, at that time, located in the U.S. Capitol. The case was briefly mentioned in the New York Evening Post on February 13, 1824. There was actually considerable public interest in the case due to changing attitudes in America. In the early 1820s the nation was approaching its 50th anniversary, and a general theme was that business was growing. In New York, the Erie Canal, which would transform the country in major ways, was under construction. In other places canals were operating, mills were producing fabric, and early factories were producing any number of products. To show off all the industrial progress America had made in its five decades of freedom, the federal government even invited an old friend, the Marquis de Lafayette to visit the country and tour all 24 states. In that atmosphere of progress and growth, the idea that one state could write a law that might arbitrarily restrict business was seen as a problem which needed to be solved. So while the legal battle between Gibbons and Ogden may have been conceived in a bitter rivalry between two cantankerous lawyers, it was obvious at the time that the case would have implications across American society. And the public seemed to want free trade, meaning restrictions shouldnt be placed by individual states. Daniel Webster argued that portion of the case with his usual eloquence. He delivered a speech which was later considered important enough to be included in anthologies of his writings. At one point Webster stressed that it was well-known why the U.S. Constitution had to be written after the young country encountered many problems under The Articles of Confederation: Ã¢â¬Å"Few things are better known than the immediate causes which led to the adoption of the present Constitution; and there is nothing, as I think, clearer, than that the prevailing motive was to regulate commerce; to rescue it from the embarrassing and destructive consequences resulting from the legislation of so many different States, and to place it under the protection of a uniform law.Ã¢â¬ In his impassioned argument, Webster stated that creators of the Constitution, when speaking of commerce, fully intended it to mean the entire country as a unit: Ã¢â¬Å"What is it that is to be regulated? Not the commerce of the several States, respectively, but the commerce of the United States. Henceforth, the commerce of the States was to be a unit, and the system by which it was to exist and be governed must necessarily be complete, entire, and uniform. Its character was to be described in the flag which waved over it, E Pluribus Unum.Ã¢â¬ Following Websters star performance, William Wirt also spoke for Gibbons, making arguments about monopolies and commercial law. The lawyers for Ogden then spoke to argue in favor of the monopoly. To many members of the public, the monopoly had seemed unfair and outdated, a throwback to some earlier era. In the 1820s, with business growing in the young country, Webster seemed to have captured the American mood with an oration that evoked the progress that was possible when all the states operated under a system of uniform laws. The LandmarkDecision After a few weeks of suspense, the Supreme Court announced its decision on March 2, 1824. The court voted 6-0, and the decision was written by Chief Justice John Marshall.Ã The carefully reasoned decision, in which Marshall generally agreed with Daniel Websters position, was published widely, including on the front page of the New York Evening Post on March 8, 1824. The Supreme Court struck down the steamboat monopoly law. And it declared that it was unconstitutional for states to enact laws that restricted interstate commerce. That decision in 1824 about steamboats has had an impact ever since. As new technologies came along in transportation and even communication, efficient operation across state linesÃ has been possible thanks to Gibbons v. Ogden.Ã An immediate effect was that Gibbons and Vanderbilt were now free to operate their steam ferry. And Vanderbilt naturally saw great opportunity and began building his own steamboats. Others also got into the steamboat trade in the waters around New York, and within years there was bitter competition between boats carrying freight and passengers. Thomas Gibbons did not get to enjoy his victory for long, as he died two years later. But he had taught Cornelius Vanderbilt a lot about how to conduct business in a freewheeling and ruthless manner. Decades later, Vanderbilt would tangle with Wall Street operators Jay Gould and Jim Fisk in the battle for the Erie Railroad, and his early experience watching Gibbons in his epic struggleÃ with Ogden and others must have served him well. Daniel Webster went on to become one of the most prominent politicians in America, and along with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun, the three men known as theÃ Great Triumvirate would dominate the U.S. Senate.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Chordates - Chordata - The Animal Encyclopedia Chordates (Chordata) are a group of animals that includes vertebrates, tunicates, lancelets. Of these, the vertebrates- lampreys, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and fishes- are the most familiar and are the group to which humans belong. Chordates are bilaterally symmetrical, which means there is a line of symmetry that divides their body into halves that are roughly mirror images of each other. Bilateral symmetry is not unique to chordates. Other groups of animals- arthropods, segmented worms, and echinoderms- exhibit bilateral symmetry (although in the case of echinoderms, they are bilaterally symmetrical only during the larval stage of their life cycle; as adults they exhibit pentaradial symmetry). All chordates have a notochord that is present during some or all of their life cycle. A notochord is a semi-flexible rod that provides structural support and serves as an anchor for the animals large body muscles. The notochord consists of a core of semi-fluid cells enclosed in a fibrous sheath. The notochord extends the length of the animals body. In vertebrates, the notochord is only present during the embryonic stage of development, and is later replaced when vertebrae develop around the notochord to form the backbone. In tunicates, the notochord remains present throughout the animals entire life cycle. Chordates have a single, tubular nerve cord that runs along the back (dorsal) surface of the animal which, in most species, forms a brain at the front (anterior) end of the animal. They also have pharyngeal pouches that are present at some stage in their life cycle. In vertebrates, pharyngeal pouches develop into various different structures such as the middle ear cavity, the tonsils, and the parathyroid glands. In aquatic chordates, the pharyngeal pouches develop into pharyngeal slits which serve as openings between the pharyngeal cavity and the external environment. Another characteristic of chordates is a structure called the endostyle, a ciliated groove on the ventral wall of the pharynx that secretes mucus and traps small food particles that enter the pharyngeal cavity. The endostyle is present in tunicates and lancelets. In vertebrates, the endostyle is replaced by the thyroid, an endocrine gland located in the neck. Key Characteristics The key characteristics of chordates include: notochorddorsal tubular nerve cordpharyngeal pouches and slitsendostyle or thyroidpostnatal tail Species Diversity More than 75,000 species Classification Chordates are classified within the following taxonomic hierarchy: Animals Chordates Chordates are divided into the following taxonomic groups: Lancelets (Cephalochordata) - There are about 32 species of lancelets alive today. Members of this group have a notochord that persists throughout their entire life cycle. Lancelets are marine animals that have long narrow bodies. The earliest known fossil lancelet,Yunnanozoon,Ã lived about 530 million years agoÃ during the Cambrian Period. Fossil lancelets were also found in the famous fossil beds of the Burgess Shale in British Columbia.Tunicates (Urochordata) - There are about 1,600 species species of tunicates alive today. Members of this group include sea squirts, larvaceans and thaliaceans. Tunicates are marine filter-feeders, most of which live a sessile life as adults, attached to rocks or other hard surfaces on the seafloor.Vertebrates (Vertebrata) - There are about 57,000 species of vertebrates alive today. Members of this group include lampreys, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fishes. In vertebrates, the notochord is replaced during development by multiple ver tebrae that make up the backbone. Sources Hickman C, Robers L, Keen S, Larson A, IAnson H, Eisenhour D. Integrated Principles of Zoology 14th ed. Boston MA: McGraw-Hill; 2006. 910 p. Shu D, Zhang X, Chen L. Reinterpretation of Yunnanozoon as the earliest known hemichordate. Nature.Ã 1996;380(6573):428-430.
Friday, February 14, 2020
King Arthur - Essay Example Geoffrey also translated an ancient book titled Ã¢â¬Å"History of the Kings of BritianÃ¢â¬ , which was most likely highly elaborated upon in his hands. This was the first work to cover the life of King Arthur in much detail. It was taken as truth until around the 17th century. Modern historians trace much of the content of Geoffreys Ã¢â¬Å"HistoryÃ¢â¬ to Celtic mythology and other Breton writings, as well as some historical works tying the content back to actual events of the time period. Ã¢â¬Å"Life of MerlinÃ¢â¬ , another of Geoffreys writings, was both written and placed into the timeline after Ã¢â¬Å"History of the Kings of BritianÃ¢â¬ . However, since Merlin appeared in the original Ã¢â¬Å"HistoryÃ¢â¬ as well, his role was made more mythical by extending his lifespan to an impossible degree. Geoffrey did this in order to make the events in Ã¢â¬Å"Life of MerlinÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"HistoryÃ¢â¬ agree with each other, even though it is most likely that the Merlin from Ã¢â¬Å"HistoryÃ¢â¬ and the Merlin in Ã¢â¬Å"Life of MerlinÃ¢â¬ were two different people. As a reward for his work, Geoffrey was first named Bishop of St. Asaphs and then Archbishop Theobald. However, he was unable to fill this role well due to the Welsh revolution that was taking place. In addition, he died shortly after being named Archbishop, and was never really able to enjoy being elected to the position. I selected this reading because it is more interesting for me to learn about real historical figures and the background of the stories than it is to study the life of characters that never existed. Geoffrey of Monmouth is the man responsible for the popularity of the Arthur stories we know and love today; this alone makes him worthy of further study. This reading attempts to be as historically accurate as is possible. There are probably errors, given the scarcity of records that remain about Geoffrey of